Special Treatments/Gynecological Problems & Women's Health

PCOD - Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

Also known by the name Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a hormonal problem that causes women to have a variety of symptoms. The principal signs and symptoms of PCOS are related to menstrual disturbances and elevated levels of male hormones (androgens). Menstrual disturbances can include delay of normal menstruation (primary amenorrhea), the presence of fewer than normal menstrual periods (oligo menorrhea), or the absence of menstruation for more than three months (secondary amenorrhea). Menstrual cycles may not be associated with ovulation (anovulatory cycles) and may result in heavy bleeding. Symptoms related to elevated androgen levels include acne, excess hair growth on the body (hirsutism), and male-pattern hair loss.

Other signs and symptoms of PCOS include:



All women during their reproductive years' experienceLeucorrhea. This is nothing but a thick and sticky discharge released from the vagina. Other signs and symptoms that usually do not occur along with this particular medical complication are an itching or burning sensation, skin irritation or redness of the tissues. Symptoms are as follows:-


Ascites is the accumulation of fluid (usually serous fluid which is a pale yellow and clear fluid) in the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity. There may be no symptoms associated with ascites especially if it is mild (usually less than about 100 – 400 ml in adults). As more fluid accumulates, increased abdominal girth and size are commonly seen. Abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating are also frequently seen as ascites becomes larger. Shortness of breath can also happen with large ascites due to increased pressure on the diaphragm and the migration of the fluid across the diaphragm causing pleural effusions (fluid around the lungs). A cosmetically disfiguring large belly, due to ascites, is also a common concern of some patients.


A uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma (benign (non-cancerous) tumor from smooth muscle tissue) that originates from the smooth muscle layer (myometrium) of the uterus. Fibroids are often multiple and if the uterus contains too many leiomyomata to count, it is referred to as diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis. The malignant version of a fibroid is extremely uncommon and termed a leiomyosarcoma.

Other common names are uterine leiomyoma, myoma, fibromyoma, fibroleiomyoma.

Fibroids are the most common benign tumors in females and typically found during the middle and later reproductive years. While most fibroids are asymptomatic, they can grow and cause heavy and painful menstruation, painful sexual intercourse, and urinary frequency and urgency. Some fibroids may interfere with pregnancy although this appears to be very rare.


Menopause means the "end of monthly cycles" (the end of monthly periods aka menstruation), . Menopause is an event that typically (but not always) occurs in women in midlife, during their late 40s or early 50s, and it signals the end of the fertile phase of a woman's life. However, rather than being defined by the state of the uterus and the absence of menstrual flow, menopause is more accurately defined as the permanent cessation of the primary functions of the ovaries the ripening and release of ova and the release of hormones that cause both the creation of the uterine lining, and the subsequent shedding of the uterine lining (a.k.a. the menses or the period).

This transition from a potentially reproductive to a non-reproductive state is the result of a reduction in female hormonal production by the ovaries. This transition is normally not sudden or abrupt, tends to occur over a period of years, and is a consequence of biological aging. However, for some women, the accompanying signs and effects that can occur during the menopause transition years can significantly disrupt their daily activities and sense of well-being. In addition, women who have some sort of functional disorder affecting the reproductive system (e.g., endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, cancer of the reproductive organs) can go into menopause at a younger age than the normal timeframe. The functional disorders often significantly speed up the menopausal process and create more significant health problems, both physical and emotional, for the affected woman.


Menstrual irregularity can be described as an abnormal condition in a women's cycle.


Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods.It is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of amenorrhoea are seen, most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding), the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the lactational amenorrhoea method. Outside of the reproductive years there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause.

Amenorrhoea is a symptom with many potential causes. There are two types of amenorrhea;- Primary amenorrhoea is caused by developmental problems, such as

1. Congenital absence of the uterus
2. Failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells
3. Delay in pubertal development.

Secondary amenorrhoea is caused by

1. Hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland


Menorrhagia is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow. It can be caused by structural abnormalities in the reproductive tract, anovulation, bleeding disorders,hormone issues (such as hypothyroidism) or cancer of the reproductive tract.


Oligomenorrhea is a condition in where menstrual periods are infrequent. It occurs in women of childbearing age. Some variation in menstruation is normal, but a woman who regularly goes more than 35 days without menstruating may be diagnosed with oligomenorrhea. Periods usually occur every 21 to 35 days.


Dysmenorrhea is the name for painful menstrual cramps.There are two types of Dysmenorrhea;-

Primary dysmenorrheal is the most common with cramping pain in the lower abdomen occurring at the onset of menstruation in the absence of identifiable pelvic disease. It must be distinguished from secondary dysmenorrheal, which refers to painful menses resulting from pelvic pathology such as endometriosis.


Endometriosis is a condition in which the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside it. Most often this is on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and tissue around the uterus and ovaries; however, in rare cases it may also occur in other parts of the body. The main symptoms are pelvic pain and infertility. Nearly half of those affected have chronic pelvic pain, while in 70% pain occurs during menstruation. Pain during sex is also common. Infertility occurs in up to half of women affected.Less common symptoms include urinary or bowel symptoms. About 25% of women have no symptoms.Endometriosis can have both social and psychological effects


Vaginismus, sometimes called vaginism, is a condition that affects a woman's ability to engage in vaginal penetration, including sexual intercourse, manual penetration, insertion of tampons or menstrual cups, and the penetration involved in gynecological examinations (pap tests). This is the result of an involuntary vaginal muscle spasm, which makes any kind of vaginal penetration painful or impossible.


Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes. The pain can primarily be on the external surface of the genitalia, or deeper in the pelvis upon deep pressure against the cervix. It can affect a small portion of the vulva or vagina or be felt all over the surface.

Vaginal Candidiasis

Vaginal infection, also known as Candidalvulvovaginitis, is excessive growth of yeast in the vagina that results in irritation.The most common symptom is vaginal itching, which may be severe. Other symptoms include burning with urination, white and thick vaginal discharge that typically does not smell bad, pain with sex, and redness around the vagina. Symptoms often worsen just before a woman's period. Aggravating factors include taking antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS. Eating a diet high in simple sugar may also play a role.

PID(Pelvic inflammatory disease)

It is an infection that occurs in some part of the female reproductive organs. One of the symptoms of PID is a foul-smelling discharge from the vagina. It may also be accompanied by irregular menstrual periods or pain during sex. The most common cause for PID is by coming into contact with a sexually transmitted disease.PID is a serious illness that may damage the fallopian tubes and prevent future pregnancies.

Cervical erosion

Cervical erosion is a change to the cells around the opening on the cervix, causing vaginal discharge. The cells inside the cervical canal grow out and are found on the outer surface of the cervix. This condition is also called vaginal erosion or cervical ectropion. Oral contraceptives are found to be a main cause for the condition. It can occur in pregnancy, young women and in menopause.Pain and bleeding can also happen during or after a pelvic exam. Conditions due to cervical erosion are: