Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, depression, and weight gain. Occasionally there may be swelling of the front part of the neck due to goiter. Untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to delays in development in the baby
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.Thyrotoxicosis is the condition that occurs due to excessive thyroid hormone of any cause and therefore included under hyperthyroidism. Signs and symptoms vary between people and may include irritability, muscle weakness, sleeping problems, a fast heartbeat, heat intolerance, diarrhea, enlargement of the thyroid, and weight loss. Symptoms are typically less in the old and during pregnancy.
Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose.Absence or insufficient production of insulin causes diabetes.
The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 and type 2. Former names for these conditions were insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, or juvenile onset and adult onset diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue.
The major complications of diabetes are both acute and chronic.Acute complications: dangerously elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia), abnormally low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) due to diabetes medications may occur Chronic complications: disease of the blood vessels (both small and large) which can damage the feet, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart may occur
Liver is the largest gland in the human body. It performs multiple functions, one of which is the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, proteins and minerals received through food. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver. I.e. when a fat deposition is more than 5% - 10% of the liver weight. Fatty liver by itself is a benign condition and may cause no harm. However when the fat constitutes more than 10% of the liver's weight then problems can occur & it has an adverse effect on overall health. Excess fat causes liver inflammation and damages liver cells. The number of patients with fatty liver has increased in India, due to increase in over use of alcohol intake, fatty diet, sedentary life style (no exercise). Fatty liver may occasionally progress to liver cirrhosis.
Alcohol contains mainly ethanol, it is oxidized into acetaldehyde in the presence of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme in the gastric mucosa. Acetaldehyde converted into acetic acid to acetate. Large amount of fatty acids is synthesized from acetate in the liver cells. This excess produced fat is deposited in the liver, which is called as 'Fatty Liver'. On the other hand, the rate at which fat gets broken down in the liver can also slow down causing fatty cells to build up.
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a condition that resembles alcohol induced liver disease but occurs in patients who are not alcoholic. Men and Women both are equally affected and there are strong association with obesity and Dyslipidemia. Urbanization and associated changes, such as sedentary life style and fat rich diet and a higher inherited tendency for Type-2 DM makes persons more prone for NAFLD. Several mechanisms have been postulated to explain the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The complex interaction of various factors leads to insulin resistance and serum & liver iron over load and oxidative stress that leads to necro-inflammation and fibrosis. Obesity is more strongly associated with NAFLD. In severe obese people, the risk of liver disease increases progressively with metabolic syndrome.
A cavernous liver hemangioma or hepatic hemangioma is a benign tumor of the liver composed of hepatic endothelial cells. It is the most common liver tumor, and is usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally on radiological imaging. Liver hemangiomas are thought to be congenital in origin. It's a mass that occurs in the liver. Liver Hemangioma is made up of tangles of blood vessels. It's sometimes known as hepatic hemangioma or Cavernous Hemangioma.A large, atypical hemangioma of the liver may present with abdominal pain or fullness due to hemorrhage, thrombosis or mass effect.