Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. Hypertension is a psychosomatic disease which is one among the most leading health problems. It is the most alarming of health problems. It is the most pre disposing factor for heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, renal diseases, peripheral arterial disease and atherosclerosis. Obesity and weight gain are strong independent risk factors for Hypertension. Hypertension among people is much related to common salt intake. Environmental factors like alcohol consumption, psychological stress, and low levels of physical activity can contribute to Hypertension. It is also called as Silent killer because of the disastrous effect caused by the condition.
Atherosclerosis is a condition where an artery wall thickens as a result of invasion and accumulation of white blood cells and proliferation of smooth muscle cell creating an atheromatous plaque(a mix of lipids, calcium and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue).Atherosclerosis is therefore a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels due to a chronic inflammatory response of white blood cells in the walls of arteries. This is promoted by low-density lipoproteins (LDL, plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides). Atherosclerosis is asymptomatic for decades because the arteries enlarge at all plaque locations, thus there is no effect on blood flow. Even most plaque ruptures do not produce symptoms until enough narrowing or closure of an artery, due to clots, occurs. Signs and symptoms only occur after severe narrowing or closure impedes blood flow to different organs enough to induce symptoms. Most of the time, patients realize that they have the disease only when they experience other cardiovascular disorders such as stroke or heart attack. Symptoms of Atherosclerosis are:
Vein is said to be varicose when it is dilated, tortuous and elongated. It appears commonly in long standing people. During prolonged standing long column of blood along with gravity puts pressure on weakened valves of veins and giving rise to varicosity. Conditions due to varicosity are:
Anemia is a medical condition in which the red blood cell count or hemoglobin is less than normal. For men, anemia is typically defined as hemoglobin level of less than 13.5 gram/100 ml and in women as hemoglobin of less than 12.0 gram/100 ml. Anemia is caused by either a decrease in production of red blood cells or hemoglobin, or an increase in loss or destruction of red blood cells. Some patients with anemia have no symptoms. Others may feel tired, easily fatigued, appear pale, a feeling of heart racing, short of breath, and/or worsening of heart problems.
Hemorrhoids often described as "varicose veins of the anus and rectum". Hemorrhoids are enlarged, bulging blood vessels in and about the anus and lower rectum. Hemorrhoids are usually found in three main locations: left lateral, right anterior and right posterior portions. They lie beneath the epithelial lining of the anal canal and consist of direct arterio-venous communications. The main causes for hemorrhoids are:
The symptoms of piles include