Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that features the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints. Cartilage is a protein substance that serves as a "cushion" between the bones of the joints. There can be swelling, warmth, and creaking of the affected joints. Pain and stiffness of the joints can also occur after long periods of inactivity (for example, sitting in a theater). In severe osteoarthritis, complete loss of the cartilage cushion causes friction between bones, causing pain even at rest or pain with limited motion.
Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone are altered.
The form of osteoporosis most common in women after menopause is referred to as primary type 1 or postmenopausal osteoporosis. Primary type 2 osteoporosis or senile osteoporosis occurs after age 75 and is seen in both females and males at a ratio of 2:1. Secondary osteoporosis may arise at any age and affect men and women equally. This form results from chronic predisposing medical problems or disease, or prolonged use of medications such as glucocorticoids, when the disease is called steroid- or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
The risk of osteoporosis fractures can be reduced with lifestyle changes and in those with previous osteoporosis related fractures medications. Lifestyle change includes diet, exercise, and preventing falls. The utility of calcium and vitamin D is questionable in most. Bisphosphonates are useful in those with previous fractures from osteoporosis but are of minimal benefit in those who have osteoporosis but no previous fractures. Osteoporosis is a component of the frailty syndrome.
Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones caused by impaired bone metabolism primarily due to inadequate levels of available phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D.The impairment of bone metabolism causes inadequate bone mineralization. The most common cause of osteomalacia is a deficiency of vitamin D, which is normally derived from sunlight exposure and from the diet.
Main causes of Osteomalacia are:
Osteomalacia in adults starts insidiously as aches and pains in the lumbar (lower back) region and thighs before spreading to the arms and ribs. The pain is symmetrical, non-radiating and accompanied by sensitivity in the involved bones. Proximal muscles are weak, and there is difficulty in climbing up stairs and getting up from a squatting position. As a result of demineralization, the bones become less rigid. Most of the time, the only alleged symptom is chronic fatigue, while bone aches are not spontaneous but only revealed by pressure or shocks.
Sacroiliitis condition caused by any inflammation within one, or both, of the sacroiliac joints..
Main causes for Sacroiliitis
Conditions due to Sacroiliitisare:
Symptoms are typically aggravated by:
A bone spur is a tiny pointed outgrowth of bone. Heel spurs cause local foot pain, tenderness, and sometimes swelling. This can lead to difficulty walking due to pain at the bottom of the foot with weight-bearing. Sometimes there is accompanying inflammation of the entire bottom of the foot when the heel spur occurs in the bottom of the heel bone
Cervical spondylosis, also known as cervical osteoarthritis or neck arthritis, is a common, age-related condition that affects the joints and discs of neck. It develops due to the degeneration of the cartilage and bones found in the cervical spine.
The main causes for cervical spondylosis
Common Symptoms in Cervical spondylosis are the following
Lumbar spondylosis is a condition where the lower spine gets degenerated due to age and compression. While spondylosis can occur throughout the spine, the most common location of occurrence is in the lowest portion of the spine, where the lumbar meets the sacrum, or tailbone and spine Main symptoms of lumbar spondylosis are :
This condition is due to the congenital narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal exacerbated by the degenerative changes that commonly occur with age. The most common cause of lumbar canal stenosis is degenerative arthritis and degenerative disc in vertebra. The main discomforts due to the condition are: